Engineering Ceramics And Applications

Engineering Ceramics And Applications

Engineering materials made of ceramics together with their mixtures and composites are so important that we need them in every industry which are serving to us to make our lives better and sustaineble. Industries such as semiconductor, energy, areospace, defence, consumer electronics and material developments are continously using those parts made of such high performance materials.

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Processed Materials
Alumina Ceramic Al2O3

Alumina ceramic is one of the most widely used ceramic types in many areas such as semiconductor processing equipment parts, seals, electronic substrates, industrial machine components and automotive sensors.

It is an excellent electrical insulator. It features high hardness and wear resistance, low erosion levels, high temperature resistance, corrosion resistance, and bioinertness. Additionally, it is a very hard industrial ceramic that can only be formed by diamond grinding.

Main Characteristics
·         High hardness
·         High wear-resistant
·         High compressive strength
·         High mechanical Strength
·         Excellent electrical insulation properties
·         Excellent dielectric properties
·         Good thermal conductivity
·         The melting point is very high at 2,072°C

Wear Alumina Ceramic Parts
·         Wear alumina ceramic parts
·         Ceramic Sprayers Cyclones
·         Homogenising devices
·         Ceramic Linings
·         Milling Systems
·         Ceramic Thread guides
 
Precision Alumina Ceramic Components
·         Ceramic Measuring Components
·         Ceramic Control systems
·         (Micro) dosing valves
·         Electronics
·         Components,
·         Mechatronics
·         Optical applications

Machine-Construction
·         Positioning
·         Guide parts
·         Coatings,
·         Transport ceramic rollers
·         Ceramic Dies
·         Textile machine parts,
·         Furnace parts
 
Rotating Equipment
·         Ceramic Sliding Bearings
·         Ceramic Ball bearings
·         Mechanical seals
·         Ceramic Plungers
·         Ceramic Valves / fittings,
·         Dosing components
 
Cutting & Moulding
·         Ceramic knives
·         Metal-forming tools
·         Seaming rolls
·         Ceramic Punches
·         Drawing dies

Boron Nitride (BN)

Boron nitride, also called white graphite, is a ceramic-like compound composed of boron and nitrogen atoms. Its crystal has a hexagonal structure and its structure is similar to graphite. It is also an ideal heat dissipation material with good heat resistance, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, high temperature properties.
 
Material of Boron Nitride Ceramics
·         Pyrolytic Boron Nitride: 99.99% Boron Nitride*
·         UHB: >99.7% Boron Nitride
·         HB: >99% Boron Nitride
·         BC: >97.5% Boron Nitride
·         BAN: Boron Nitride + Aluminum Nitride
·         BMZ: Boron Nitride + Zirconium Oxide
·         BMA: Boron Nitride + Zirconium Oxide + Aluminum Oxide
·         BSC: Boron Nitride + Silicon Carbide
·         BMS: Boron Nitride +Silicon Oxide+Aluminum Oxide
 
Processing of Boron Nitride Ceramics
·         Hot Pressed Sintering
·         Chemical Vapor Deposition
 
Typical Applications of Boron Nitrides Ceramics
·         Thermal Management
Excellent electrical insulation and thermal conductivity make BN very useful as a heat sink in high-power electronic applications.
Its properties compare favorably with beryllium oxide, aluminum oxide, and other electronic packaging materials, and are easier machinable to desired shapes and sizes.
 
·         High Temperature Environments
Temperature stability and excellent resistance to thermal shock make BN the ideal material in the toughest high-temperature environments such as equipment for plasma arc welding, diffusion source wafers, and semiconductor crystal growth equipment & processing.
 
·         Molten Metal Handling
BN is inorganic, inert, nonreactive with halide salts and reagents, and is not wet by most molten metals and slags. These characteristics, combined with low thermal expansion, make it ideal for interface materials used in various molten metal processes.

Pyrolytic Boron Nitride (PBN)

Pyrolytic boron nitride is a grade of hexagonal boron nitride produced through chemical vapor deposition. PBN is a extremely high purity of boron nitride. 99.99% is the typical grade.

Through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, pyrolytic boron nitride acquires an almost perfectly layered structure, leading to anisotropic thermal conductivity, making it an ideal material to make crucibles for crystal growing.
 
Pyrolytic Boron Nitride Ceramics Applications:
·         Crystal growth (VGF, LEC Crucible)
·         Molecular Beam Epitaxy(MBE) Crucible
·         MOCVD Heater
·         PBN Infrared Window
·         Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) (PBN Support Rod)
·         PBN Coating Graphite
·         High temperature, vacuum equipment insulator
 
Pyrolytic Boron Nitride Ceramics Characteristic:
·         The color of PBN is ivory and orange-brown, nontoxic, imporosity, easy processing.
·         The purity is up to 99.99%, surface densification, good gas barrier properties.
·         The strength increases as the temperature rises and peaked at 2200°C.
·         Acid, alkali, salt, and organic reagent resistance.
·         Excellent thermal shock resistance, excellent thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion coefficient.
·         High resistance, high dielectric strength, low dielectric constant, low dissipation factor, excellent microwave, and infrared ray ability.
·         It’s with anisotropy in the mechanics, heat, and electricity.

Berylium Oxide

Beryllium Oxide (BeO), which is commonly referred to as Beryllia, is endowed with a virtuously unique combination of thermal, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties.

It is a ceramic with high thermal conductivity, high melting, high insulation and low dielectric constant properties that can be used in many areas such as health, energy, military and aerospace, wireless communications, lasers.

In addition, BeO ceramic conducts heat more quickly than virtually all metals with the exception of copper and silver.
 
Applications of Beryllium Oxide Ceramics
Medical
·         Gas lasers for DNA and tissue analysis
·         Confocal and wide-field fluorescence microscopy equipment
·         Portable defibrillators
·         Telecom Infrastructure
·         Transistors and terminations in the wireless system
 
Lasers
·         High end laser diodes for commercial systems
·         Industrial laser metal cutting and marking equipment
·         Long range fiber optic transmission
 
Semiconductor handling equipment
·         End-effectors and arm components
·         Wafer chucks
·         Crucibles for high temperature melting
 
Energy
·         Oil and gas exploration
·         In situ X-ray analysis for down-hole drilling
·         Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems
·         Optoelectronics
·         Transmitters, receivers, modulators, and switches
·         Power amplifiers and drivers

Aluminum Nitride (AlN)

Aluminum nitride is a material that allows electrical systems to dissipate heat quickly to maintain maximum efficiency, thanks to its high thermal conductivity and electrical insulation properties.

Additionally, when machined since it offers a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) near that of silicon, excellent plasma resistance and not heath hazard, it is used for semiconductor processing equipment components.
 
Aluminum Nitride (AIN) Ceramics exhibit exceptional characteristics as below:
·         Good mechanical properties,
·         Higher flexural strength than Al2O3 and BeO ceramics,
·         High temperature and corrosion resistance.
·         High thermal conductivity combined with good electrical insulation characteristics.
·         Exceptional stability when exposed to many molten salts.
·         Thermal stability up to at least 1500°C
·         Favorable mechanical characteristics extending into the high temperature range.
·         Low thermal expansion and resistance to thermal shock.
·         Special optical and acoustic characteristics.
·         Good dielectric properties
 
Aplications
·         Components for semiconductor equipment
·         IC packaging
·         Thermal module substrate
·         High power transistor module substrate
·         High frequency device substrate
·         Exothermic insulation board for Thyristor Modules
·         Semiconductor laser, fixed substrate for light emitting diode (LED)
·         Hybrid integrated module, ignition device module
·         Used in the sintering of structural ceramics
·         AlN Crucible for Metal Melting & Electronic cigarettes
·         Applied to luminous materials
·         Applied to the substrate material
·         Heat sinks & heat spreaders
·         Electrical insulators
·         Heat Uniformity Parts
·         High Temperature Treatment Fixtures

Zirconia

Zirconia (ZrO2) ceramic is a strong industrial ceramic with hardness, high fracture toughness and high corrosion resistance, in contrast to high brittleness, which are the most basic characteristics of ceramics.

Because of these properties, it is sometimes referred to as “ceramic steel”. Zirconia Ceramics have the highest toughness and strength at room temperature of all the advanced ceramic materials.
 
This dense advanced ceramics material is usually precision ground using conventional diamond cutters and wheels. Machines used for precision grinding include:

·         Surface grinders
·         CNC milling machines
·         Jig grinders
·         Centerless grinders
·         CNC lathes
·         ID grinders
 
Main Characteristics
·         High Mechanical Strength
·         Excellent Wear Resistance
·         Good Surface Finish
·         High Fracture Toughness
·         Low thermal conductivity
·         High density
·         Good thermal conductivity
 
Main Applications
·         Pumps, pistons, and liners
·         Precision ball valve balls and seats
·         Cutting Blades, Knives,
·         Welding pins
·         Fiber optic ferrules and sleeves
·         Bearings & rollers
·         Ceramic guiders
 
Types of Zirconium Oxide:
·         Y-TZP (White, Black, Blue, Color)
·         Mg-PSZ (Yellow Color)
·         ZTA (Zirconia toughened alumina)

Silicon Nitride (SiN)

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is a man made compound with high fracture toughness and excellent thermal shock resistance. It has excellent thermal shock resistance.

It has features such as low density, high strength, low thermal expansion, good corrosion resistance, low thermal conductivity, high wear resistance and thermal gradient.

This makes it an excellent material that can withstand the toughest conditions in the most demanding industrial applications. Finally, silicon nitride is used in foundries, electronics, automotive and aviation fields, and is dark gray and black in color.
 
Main Characteristics
·         High strength over a wide temperature rang
·         High fracture toughness
·         Good flexural strength
·         High hardness and wear resistance
·         Good thermal shock resistance
·         Good chemical corrosion resistance
·         Lightweight – Low density
·         Low thermal expansion
·         Good oxidation resistance
 
Applications for silicon nitride include
·         Rotating bearing balls and rollers
·         Cutting tools
·         Engine components
·         Welding & brazing jigs
·         Turbine blades, vanes, buckets
·         Metal tube forming rolls and dies
·         Precision shafts
·         Weld positionres
·         Thermocouple sheaths & tubes
 
Types of Silicon Nitride
·         Reaction-Bonded Silicon Nitride (RBSN)
·         Sintered Reaction-Bonded Silicon Nitride (SRBSN)
·         Gas Pressure Sintered Silicon Nitride (GPSN)
·         Hot Pressed Silicon Nitride (HPSN)
·         Hot Isostatically Pressed Silicon Nitride (HIP-SN)

Silicon Carbide (SiC)

Silicon carbide is one of the lightest, hardest and strongest, consisting of silicon and carbon atoms. It is the most corrosion-resistant and wear-resistant ceramic.
 
Main Characteristics
·         High hardness and wear resistance
·         High Chemical Resistance, Excellent Thermal
·         Corrosion resistant
·         Lightweight – Low Density
·         High Temperature Strength
·         Low thermal expansion and high thermal conductivity
·         Excellent thermal shock resistance
·         Chemical Inertness
 
Main Applications
·         Mechanical Seal, bearings, Bushings
·         High Temperature Resistance Parts
·         Nozzles
·         Ball valve parts
·         Heat exchangers
·         Fixed and moving turbine components
·         Plungers
 
Forming Technology
·         Sheet Metal Forming
·         CNC Machining
·         Die-Casting
·         Laser Cutting
 
Related Products
·         Abrasive Materials
·         Ceramic Coatings
·         Electronics Components
·         Ceramic Bearings
·         Ceramic Filters
·         Refractory Materials

Porous Ceramics

Porous ceramics are ceramics that have a large number of air-filled, straight and oriented unidirectionally open small pores in their structure. In addition to being lighter than other ceramics due to its air-filled pores, its heat capacity and thermal conductivity are also extremely small.

But they have the same strength, hardness, heat resistance and chemical stability as other ceramics. Finally, pore size, configuration, and porosity can be controlled to suit a wide range of functional needs.
 
Porous Ceramics Applications
·         Ceramic Vacuum Chucks
·         Ceramic Filters
·         Ceramic Diffusers
·         Ceramic Air Bearings
·         Ceramic Permeable Substrates
·         Ceramic Dispersion Media
·         Ceramic Ash Handling
·         Ceramic Wicking Media
·         Ceramic Fluidized Bed Plates
·         Ceramic Specialty Spargers
·         Ceramic Breathers – Vents

Metalized Ceramics

Ceramic metallization is a process in which a layer of metal is deposited onto the substrate ceramic surface. It can be metalized on flat, cylindrical and complex ceramic bodies such as discs, rings, cylinders and cutters. Moly-Manganese is the typical base coat materials used for metallization.
 
Metallized Ceramics Joining Types:
·         Ceramic + Mo/Mn Metallized + plating Ni
·         Ceramic + Mo/Mn Metallized + plating Ag
·         Ceramic + Mo/Mn Metallized + plating Au
·         Ceramic + printing Ag
 
Metallized Ceramics Applications:
·         Ceramic Feed-through insulators,
·         Ceramic Headers,
·         Ceramic High-power receptacles,
·         Ceramic Insulating discs,
·         Ceramic Insulator rings and cylinders,
·         Ceramic Precipitator products,
·         Ceramic Power switches,
·         Ceramic Traveling wave tubes,
·         Ceramic Vacuum interrupters,
·         Ceramic components for Windows,
·         Ceramic Power grid tubes,
·         X-ray Ceramic tubes

Machinable Glass Ceramics

Machinable glass ceramics are a versatile material that has the properties of both glass and ceramic materials. It provides machinability as good as a metal and can be turned, milled, planed, ground, drilled, cut and tapped.

It also has the advantages of insulation, pore-free, high/low-temperature resistant, acid and alkali resistant and thermal impact resistant. In terms of machinability, it can take place of aluminum oxide and boron nitride ceramics that are difficult to machine.
 
Main Characteristics
·         Very tight machining tolerances
·         Can be machined with normal metalworking tools
·         Electrical insulator
·         Does not require firing after machining
·         Low thermal conductivity

Machinable Glass Ceramics Main properties:
·         Magnetic susceptibility                                ≤1.2×10-6
·         Dielectric constant                                      6~7
·         Breakdown voltage                                     ≥15 KV/mm
·         Flexural strength                                        ≥108Mpa
·         Fracture Modulus                                       15000bf/in2
·         Impact toughness                                       ≥ 3.8 KJ/m2 Knoop
·         Hardness                                                   176~343 kg/mm2
·         Volume density                                       2.5~2.8 g/cm3
·         Range of operating temperature                -200~+1000℃
·         Thermal expansion coefficient                   ≤94×10-7 /K
·         Thermal conductivity                                 ≥ 1.7 W/m·K
 
Machinable Glass Ceramics Applications:
·         Electronics/Semiconductors
·         Precision coil formers
·         High voltage insulators
·         Laser Applications
·         High Vacuum Applications

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